The American Academy of Pediatrics: Section on Ophthalmology and Council on Children with Disabilities, American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, and American Association of Certified Orthoptists published a Joint Policy Statement in August, 2009:
Learning disabilities, including reading disabilities, are commonly diagnosed in children. Their etiologies are multifactorial, reflecting genetic influences and dysfunction of brain systems. Learning disabilities are complex problems that require complex solutions. Early recognition and referral to qualified educational professionals for evidence-based evaluations and treatments seem necessary to achieve the best possible outcome. Most experts believe that dyslexia is a language-based disorder. Vision problems can interfere with the process of learning; however, vision problems are not the cause of primary dyslexia or learning disabilities. Scientific evidence does not support the efficacy of eye exercises, behavioral vision therapy, or special tinted filters or lenses for improving the long-term educational performance in these complex pediatric neurocognitive conditions. Diagnostic and treatment approaches that lack scientific evidence of efficacy, including eye exercises, behavioral vision therapy, or special tinted filters or lenses, are not endorsed and should not be recommended.
The International Dyslexia Association (IDA) developed the Knowledge and Practice Standards for Teachers of Reading which outlines the requirements needed to become certified in Structured Literacy. There are 2 paths for certification:
- university programs accredited by the IDA, and
- independent teacher training programs accredited by the IDA.
Background and History on the “Reading Wars”
- Research and the Reading Wars is a chapter excerpt posted on Harvard’s website. This is excellent background into the history and science of the reading wars. Lengthy but a must read! Or read the abridged version! 1/2008
- The Reading Wars 11/1997
- How the ‘reading wars’ are being reignited 8/21/2013
- Another blast in the reading wars 9/17/2013
- The Reading Wars: Why Natural Learning Fails in Classrooms 11/19/2013
- Why Science Lost the Reading Wars by Literate Nation, Fall 2013
- How the Reading Brain Resolves the Reading Wars by Maryanne Wolf, Fall 2013
- The Reading Wars: Phonics vs Whole Language 12/2008
- Whole Language High Jinks by Louisa Moats
National Reading Panel
- National Reading Panel Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read
- National Reading Panel Reports of the Subgroups – fyi, this is a 449 page document
- Impact of Scientifically-based Reading Instruction on Different Groups and Different Levels of Performance by Steve P. Dykstra
- Reading Development and Literacy Instruction
- Reading Recovery: An Evaluation of Benefits and Costs
- An Evaluation of Benefits and Costs
- Reading Recovery: What Do School Districts Get For Their Money?
- New Zealand’s literacy strategy (Reading Recovery) failing to reduce the gap
By Louisa Moats
- Whole Language Lives On: The Illusion of “Balanced” Reading
- Whole-Language High Jinks: How to Tell When “Scientifically Based Reading Instruction” Isn’t
- Literacy Achievement in the Primary Grades in High-Poverty Schools
- Teaching Reading is Rocket Science: What Expert Teachers of Reading Should Know and Be Able To Do
- How Spelling Supports Reading And Why It Is More Regular and Predictable Than You May Think
Dyslexia and the New Science of Reading: this article appeared in Newsweek in November 1999 yet is still very relevant today.
Sherman on Brain Research and Reading
NCLD’s Reading Comprehension Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities
Wrightslaw The Best Kept Secret in Special Education
Wrightslaw Fifth grader is reading at 2.7 grade level. Should he be tested for Special Ed?
Lighting the Way: The Reading Panel Report Ought to Guide Teacher Preparation
Don’t “Dys” Our Kids: Dyslexia and the Quest for Grade Level Reading
Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Reading Fluency: Implications for Understanding and Treatment of Reading Disabilities by Elizabeth S. Norton and Maryanne Wolf
Effectiveness of Treatment Approaches for Children and Adolescents with Reading Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
The Usefulness of Brief Instruction in Reading Comprehension Strategies